James while John had had had had had had had had had had had a better effect on the teacher

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"James while John had had had had had had had had had had had a better effect on the teacher" är en engelsk mening som används för att illustrera tvetydigheter och behovet av skiljetecken,[1] som ersätter intonation,[2] betoning och avbrott förekommande i tal.[3] Meningen har använts i forskning om människans förmåga att hantera information för att visa hur läsare är beroende av skiljetecken för att ge text mening.[4]

Betydelse[redigera | redigera wikitext]

Meningens betydelse framkommer med skiljetecken och citattecken:

James, while John had had "had", had had "had had"; "had had" had had a better effect on the teacher.[5]

Meningen kan förstås som att "Medan John använt 'had', hade James använt 'had had' och läraren föredrog 'had had'."


Se även[redigera | redigera wikitext]

Referenser[redigera | redigera wikitext]

  1. ^ Magonet, Jonathan (2004). A rabbi reads the Bible (2nd). SCM-Canterbury Press. Sid. 19. ISBN 9780334029526. http://books.google.com/books?id=Wl9qT9T7aRYC&pg=PA19&dq=%22Had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had%22&lr=#PPA19,M1. Läst 30 april 2009. ”You may remember an old classroom test in English language. What punctuation marks do you have to add to this sentence so as to make sense of it?” 
  2. ^ Dundes, Alan; Carl R. Pagter (1987). When you're up to your ass in alligators: more urban folklore from the paperwork empire (Illustrated). Wayne State University Press. Sid. 135. ISBN 0814318673. http://books.google.com/books?id=McgoMZSznBgC&pg=PA135&dq=%22Had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had%22. Läst 30 april 2009. ”The object of this and similar tests is to make sense of a series of words by figuring out the correct intonation pattern.” 
  3. ^ Hudson, Grover (1999). Essential introductory linguistics. Wiley-Blackwell. Sid. 372. ISBN 0631203044. http://books.google.com/books?id=5RB07Jb4tREC&pg=PA372&dq=%22Had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had%22. Läst 30 april 2009. ”Writing is secondary to speech, in history and in the fact that speech and not writing is fundamental to the human species.” 
  4. ^ van de Velde, Roger G. (1992). Text and thinking: on some roles of thinking in text interpretation (Illustrated). Walter de Gruyter. Sid. 43. ISBN 3110132508. http://books.google.com/books?id=sa2Ir6WQtcQC&pg=PA44&dq=%22Had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had+had%22#PPA43,M1. Läst 30 april 2009. ”In scanning across lines, readers also make use of the information parts carried along with the punctuatuion markes: a period, a dash, a colon, a semicolon or a comma may signal different degrees of integration/separation between the groupings.” 
  5. ^ "Problem C: Operator Jumble". 31st ACM International Collegiate Programming Conference, 2006–2007.