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Template-info.png Dokumentation [visa] [redigera] [historik] [rensa sidcachen]

Introduction[redigera wikitext]

This Lua module is inspired by the apparent need for uniform interpretation and use of Wikidata items and properties in Wikipedia and other Wikimedia Foundation projects, as well as in independent, third-party applications.

The aim is to codify standard procedures as established by the Wikidata project, and to make them easily accessible for Wikipedia editors, Lua programmers and others using information from Wikidata for any purpose, be it to create a multilingual, online encyclopedia on any topic conceivable, or to build a highly specialized database application combining data from or about different fields of science, organizations, cultures, countries, languages, communities, individuals, or simply all possible walks of life.

Module status[redigera wikitext]

The Qutil module is not (yet, July 2020) part of an official Wikimedia Foundation project, but should be considered the author's attempt to voluntarily contribute something that could possibly be useful to other Wikipedia or Wikidata editors. There may already be other modules available that implement more or less the same functionality; if so, this module may be seen as an independent effort to verify the correctness of earlier code, to compare performance, or simply as an educational tool.

The module may also include experimental implementations of procedures not yet confirmed as official Wikidata standard; where this is the case, the corresponding functions will be marked Experimental or Unofficial as appropriate in the documentation, and their future redesign, deprecation or removal should not be entirely ruled out.

Language[redigera wikitext]

This module is intended to provide language-independent functionality, not restricted to any particular natural (or constructed) human language, writing system, visual layout, or target audience. For practical reasons though, the Lua code is written using English-language function and variable names, inline commentary, and diagnostic messages (used for development only); the same applies to this module documentation. For the benefit of end-users, a separate Lutil module is planned to present any message, factual statement, or other verbal information in the end-user's preferred languages.

Basic concepts[redigera wikitext]

Ontology[redigera wikitext]

A fundamental part of the Wikidata database is its implementation of a generic ontology relating different database items (objects by convention named using the letter 'Q' and a natural number, hence the name of this module) to each other via a limited set of property objects.

Classes[redigera wikitext]

Instances[redigera wikitext]

Properties[redigera wikitext]

Statements[redigera wikitext]

Data types[redigera wikitext]

Qualifiers[redigera wikitext]

Constraints[redigera wikitext]

References[redigera wikitext]

Rank[redigera wikitext]

Transitive properties[redigera wikitext]

Physical transitivity[redigera wikitext]

Geographical transitivity[redigera wikitext]

Corporate transitivity[redigera wikitext]


Philosophical transitivity[redigera wikitext]

Inheritable properties[redigera wikitext]


Exclusionary inheritance[redigera wikitext]

Conditional inheritance[redigera wikitext]

Additive inheritance[redigera wikitext]

Technical reference[redigera wikitext]

System requirements[redigera wikitext]

Diagnostic mode[redigera wikitext]

Simulated mode[redigera wikitext]

Calling conventions[redigera wikitext]

Exported variables[redigera wikitext]

While implemented as variables, these are meant to be used as constants in your Lua code. As they are used also internally by the Qutil module, changing them may lead to unpredictable or erratic results, and is thus not recommended.

asymmetricPropertyClass[redigera wikitext]


The class of asymmetric Wikidata properties.

classRoot[redigera wikitext]


The root of the Wikidata class tree, of which every other Wikidata class is supposed to be a subclass (direct or indirect).

disambiguationClass[redigera wikitext]


The class of Wikipedia pages detailing the possible alternatives for interpreting an ambiguous word of expression.

transitivePropertyClass[redigera wikitext]


The class of transitive Wikidata properties.

Exported functions[redigera wikitext]

context[redigera wikitext]

qutil.context( frame )

diag[redigera wikitext]

qutil.diag( frame )

Given the calling module frame, parses the diag calling option (if found), sets the module diagnostic level accordingly, and returns its resulting value (possibly unchanged) to the caller.

The diagnostic level default value is 0.

Diagnostic levels 1 and 2 are not used internally by the Qutil module, but reserved for the calling library or application. The remaining levels are used as follows:

Level Use
3 Selected diagnostic messages are produced, but not displayed.
4 Messages produced on level 3 are displayed.
5 In addition to the level 3-4 production and display of selected diagnostic messages, detailed diagnostic messages are produced in most parts of the code, but not displayed.
6 Messages produced on level 5 are displayed.

The intention of producing diagnostic messages internally without also showing them is to allow for fine-tuned debugging or optimization procedures, where the performance issue or error condition may be related to the diagnostic code itself.

getInheritedProperties[redigera wikitext]

qutil.getInheritedProperties( item, props, prop0, propt, propf ) Experimental

Fetch requested property values props for item by tracing them along the inheritance path defined by prop0, propt, and propf.

Wikidata Item (Q) or Property (P) object id for which the properties are to be fetched; a string.
A list of property retrieval paths (format described below) to be processed in parallel; either a table or nil (a shorthand representation for the unconditional, additive null property path, used to trace the entire inheritance tree between item and the applicable root).
First-step parental Property object id to initiate inheritance path traversal; either a string or nil (in which case inheritance path traversal will begin with propt).
Primary Property object id to use repeatedly for successive retrieval of parental object ids; a string or nil (in which case traversal will immediately make use of propf, if available, and otherwise terminate). Should be transitive to yield meaningful results.
Final Property to be used once after a prop0 or propt request fails to yield a single useable parent id (taking specified constraints into account); a string or nil (in which case no further parent id request will be made).
Property retrieval path format[redigera wikitext]

A table with up to three fields as follows:

  1. A list of Property id strings, possibly empty (indicating a null path); a table (must not be nil).
  2. A flag word indicating what type of inheritance to apply; a number.
  3. A list of conditions to apply to either the Property value obtained or to the parental object found; a table (further described below).
Property retrieval condition format[redigera wikitext]

(to be further defined)

Example[redigera wikitext]
local result = qutil.getInheritedProperties("Q34", {{{"P1442"}}}, "P31", "P279", nil)

Code samples[redigera wikitext]

Optimization[redigera wikitext]

Processing time[redigera wikitext]

Memory requirements[redigera wikitext]

Data caching[redigera wikitext]

Module internals[redigera wikitext]

Future development[redigera wikitext]

Backwards compatibility[redigera wikitext]

Meta-module considerations[redigera wikitext]

Translation[redigera wikitext]

Portability[redigera wikitext]

See also[redigera wikitext]

Compatible modules[redigera wikitext]

  • The Butil module (bibliographic context relations)
  • The Cutil module (corporate context relations)
  • The Dutil module (database management)
  • The Futil module (file handling)
  • The Gutil module (graphical processing)
  • The Hutil module (historical context relations)
  • The Jutil module (juvenile context relations)
  • The Lutil module (language processing)
  • The Mutil module (map processing)
  • The Nutil module (network management)
  • The Putil module (property management)
  • The Rutil module (robot management)
  • The Sutil module (scientific context relations)
  • The Tutil module (tabular processing)
  • The Vutil module (visualization processing)
  • The Wutil module (Wikimedia project relations)

Application ideas[redigera wikitext]

These are so far merely proposed names and content descriptions for anticipated laborative end-user application modules. For electrical sheep, paranoid androids and the technological singularity, see the Ilab module. To design a planet from core to stratosphere, or a galactic cluster populated and colonized by various intellectual property lawyer species, use the Ulab module.

  • The Alab module (art laboratory environment)
  • The Elab module (education laboratory environment)
  • The Ilab module (intelligence laboratory environment)
  • The Olab module (organization laboratory environment)
  • The Ulab module (universe laboratory environment)
  • The Ylab module (youth laboratory environment)

License[redigera wikitext]

The software module described here, as well as this documentation, is available under CC0 (effectively public domain). To avoid confusion and duplicated work due to multiple forks or versions being distributed simultaneously, you are still both welcome and encouraged to contact the author to discuss potential coordination or cooperation.

local diag = require("Modul:Sandlådan/SM5POR/Diag")

local gutil = require("Modul:Sandlådan/SM5POR/Gutil")

local diaglevel = 0

-- teq is recursive

local teq

teq = function(a, b)
	if type(a) == "table" and type(b) == "table" then
		if #a == #b then
			local k, v
			for k, v in pairs(a) do
				if not teq(v, b[k]) then
					return false
			return false
		return a == b
	return true

local traceview = function(s)
	if diaglevel > 5 then
		return mw.addWarning(s)
		return ""

local z = function(x)
	return tostring(x)

-- ztring is recursive

local ztring

ztring = function(t)
	local r
	if type(t) == "table" then
		local k, v
		local o = {}
		local i = 0
		for k, v in pairs(t) do
			i = i + 1
			o[i] = ztring(v)
		r = "<" .. table.concat(o, " ") .. ">"
		r = tostring(t)
	return r

local tablefind = function(t, element)
	local k, v
	for k, v in pairs(t) do
		if teq(v, element) then
			return k
	return nil

local formatValue = function(pv)
	return string.format("%s %s %s", z(pv.rank), z(pv.type), z(

local typesize = function(x)
	local k, v
	t = {}
	i = 0
	for k, v in pairs(x) do
		i = i + 1
		t[i] = type(v) .. " [" .. tostring(#v) .. "] = " .. formatValue(v)
	return t

local formatValueList = function(vlist)
	local k1, v1
	t1 = {}
	i1 = 0
	for k1, v1 in pairs(vlist) do
		local k2, v2
		t2 = {}
		i2 = 0
		for k2, v2 in pairs(v1[2]) do
			i2 = i2 + 1
			t2[i2] = v2[1] .. gutil.formatList(typesize(v2[2]))
--			t2[i2] = v2[1] .. gutil.formatList(formatValue(v2[2]))
		i1 = i1 + 1
		t1[i1] = v1[3] .. " " .. v1[1] .. gutil.formatList(t2)
	return gutil.formatList(t1)

local getStatements = function(item, prop, items)
	local stmts = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(item, prop)
	local k
	local v
	local t = {}
	local i = 0
	for k, v in pairs(stmts) do
		if items then
			if v.mainsnak.datavalue then
				v =
				v = nil
		if v then
			i = i + 1
			t[i] = v
	return t

local getParents = function(item, prop)
	return getStatements(item, prop, true)

local getValues = function(item, prop)
	return getStatements(item, prop, false)

local getValuesR = function(item0, path)
	local item = item0
	local n = #path
	for k, v in pairs(path) do
		tmp = getValues(item, v)
	return getStatements(item, prop, false)

-- getInhProp is recursive

local getInhProp

getInhProp = function(item, props, prop0, propt, propf, gen)
	local props2
	if props then
		props2 = {}
	local p2 = 0
	local goal = {}
	local g = 0
	local parents = {}
	local final
	local done = 0
	if props and #props > 0 then
		done = 1
		local k, v, stmts
		for k, v in pairs(props) do
			done = 2
			stmts = getValues(item, v)
			if #stmts > 0 then
				done = 3
				g = g + 1
				goal[g] = {v, stmts}
				done = 4
				p2 = p2 + 1
				props2[p2] = v
	if props == nil or #props2 > 0 then
		done = 5
		if prop0 then
			done = 5
			parents = getParents(item, prop0)
			done = 7
			parents = getParents(item, propt)
		if propf and #parents == 0 then
			done = 8
			final = true
			parents = getParents(item, propf)
	local found = {}
	local k0, v0, k1, v1
	local sp = {}
	local i = 0
	if props == nil or #goal > 0 then
		done = 16
		i = i + 1
		sp[i] = {item, goal, gen}
	if props2 == nil or #props2 > 0 then
		done = 9
		for k0, v0 in pairs(parents) do
			done = 10
			if final then
				done = 11
				found = getInhProp(v0, props2, nil, nil, nil, gen+1)
				done = 12
				found = getInhProp(v0, props2, nil, propt, propf, gen+1)
		for k1, v1 in pairs(found) do
			done = 14
			if tablefind(sp, v1) == nil then
				done = 15
				i = i + 1
				sp[i] = v1
	if diaglevel > 4 then
--		traceview(string.format("%s %s %s %s %s [props2 %s, goal %s, parents %s, final %s, done %d] => %s",
		traceview(string.format("%s %s %s %s %s => %s",
--								ztring(props2),
--								ztring(goal),
--								ztring(parents),
--								z(final),
--								done,
	return sp

local qutil = {}

-- Exported variables

qutil.asymmetricPropertyClass = "Q18647519"

qutil.classRoot = "Q35120"

qutil.disambiguationClass = "Q4167410"

qutil.transitivePropertyClass = "Q18647515"

-- Exported functions

qutil.buildPropertyPathSet = function(prop)
	return {{prop}}

qutil.context = function(frame)
	local item = frame.args["item"]
	local lang
	if item then
		lang = frame.args["lang"]
		item = mw.wikibase.getEntity()
		if diaglevel > 3 then
			mw.addWarning("item (" .. type(item) .. "): " .. tostring(item))
			-- local args = frame:getParent().args
	if item == nil and diaglevel > 2 then
		mw.addWarning("Wikidata item not found")
	return lang, item

qutil.diag = function(frame)
	local val = frame.args["diag"]
	if val then
		local level = tonumber(val)
		if level then
			diaglevel = level
	return diaglevel

qutil.formatValueList = formatValueList

qutil.getInheritedProperties = function(item, props, prop0, propt, propf)
	return getInhProp(item, props, prop0, propt, propf, 0)

return qutil