Messiansk judendom

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Messiansk judendom är en modern synkretisk religiös rörelse som kombinerar kristendom – varav det viktigaste den kristna tron att Jesus är Messias (הַמָשִׁיחַ, Ha-Mashiach) – med element från judendom och judisk kultur.[1][2][3][4][5] Dess nuvarande form växte fram under 1960- och 1970-talet.[1][2][6][7][8][9][10][11]

Anhängare av messiansk judendom tror att Jesus är den judiska Messias och "Sonen" (en hypostas i treenighetsläran), och att den hebreiska Bibeln, Gamla testamentet och Nya testamentet alla är auktoritativa skrifter.[12][13][14][15] Frälsning inom messiansk judendom uppnås endast genom acceptans av Jesus som sin frälsare,[8][13][14][15][16][17] och judiska lagar eller seder som följs bidrar inte till frälsning.[16][17] Tron på Jesu Messiasskap, hans makt att frälsa och hans gudomlighet är de avgörande skillnaderna mellan kristendomen och judendomen.[18][19][20][21][22][23] Andra kristna grupper accepterar vanligtvis messiansk judendom som en form av kristendomen.[24]

Många anhängare av den messianska judendomen är etniska judar[25] och hävdar att rörelsen är en sekt inom judendom.[26] Många refererar till sig själva på hebreiska som maaminim (troende), och inte konverterare, samt yehudim (judar), och inte notmrim (kristna).[27] Judiska organisationer och Israels högsta domstol har avslagit detta anspråk i ärenden som rör lagen om återvändande, och anser i stället att den messianska judendomen är en form av kristendom.[18][28]

Från 2003 till 2007 växte rörelsen från 150 messianska kyrkor i USA till så många som 438, med över 100 i Israel och ännu fler i hela världen. Församlingar är ofta anslutna till större messianska organisationer eller allianser.[29][30] Enligt 2012 års folkräkning var mellan 175 000 och 250 000 medlemmar i USA, mellan 10 000 och 20 000 medlemmar i Israel, och globalt sett cirka 350 000.[31]

Referenser[redigera | redigera wikitext]

  1. ^ [a b] Ariel, Yaakov (2006). ”Judaism and Christianity Unite! The Unique Culture of Messianic Judaism”. i Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael. Jewish and Christian Traditions. Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. "2". Westport, Conn: Greenwood Publishing Group. Sid. 191. ISBN 978-0-275-98714-5. OCLC 315689134. ”In the late 1960s and 1970s, both Jews and Christians in the United States were surprised to see the rise of a vigorous movement of Jewish Christians or Christian Jews. For many observers, such a combination seemed like an oxymoron, because they saw the two faiths as completely separate from each other. While Christianity started in the first century of the Common Era as a Jewish group, it quickly separated from Judaism and claimed to replace it; ever since the relationship between the two traditions has often been strained. But in the twentieth century, groups of young Jews claimed that they had overcome the historical differences between the two religions and amalgamated Jewish traditions and customs with the Christian faith. Attempting to overcome the historical difference between the two religious traditions, these Jewish converts to Christianity define themselves as Messianic Jews, thus pointing to the movements ideology of returning to the roots of the Christian faith.” 
  2. ^ [a b] Melton, J. Gordon. Encyclopedia of Protestantism. Infobase Publishing, 2005, ISBN 978-0-8160-5456-5, p. 373. "Messianic Judaism is a Protestant movement that emerged in the last half of the 20th century among believers who were ethnically Jewish but had adopted an Evangelical Christian faith... By the 1960s, a new effort to create a culturally Jewish Protestant Christianity emerged among individuals who began to call themselves Messianic Jews."
  3. ^ Kessler, Edward (2005). ”Messianic Jews”. i Kessler, Edward; Wenborn, Neil. A Dictionary Of Jewish-Christian Relations. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. s. 292. ISBN 978-0-521-82692-1. ”[Messianic Judaism's] syncretism confuses Christians and Jews ...”. 
  4. ^ Cohn-Sherbok, Dan (2000). ”Messianic Jewish mission”. Messianic Judaism. London: Continuum International Publishing Group. Sid. 179. ISBN 978-0-8264-5458-4. OCLC 42719687. https://books.google.com/books?id=5aOOlWdLpNwC&pg=PA169&dq=%22Messianic+Judaism%22+Christian+Jewish&hl=en&ei=IkthTJaKMMT48Aax_dDaCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Evangelism%20Jewish%20people%20heart%20movement&f=false. Läst 10 augusti 2010. 
  5. ^ Ariel, Yaakov S. (2000). ”Chapter 20: The Rise of Messianic Judaism” (Google Books). Evangelizing the chosen people: missions to the Jews in America, 1880–2000. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Sid. 223. ISBN 978-0-8078-4880-7. OCLC 43708450. https://books.google.com/books?id=r3hCgIZB790C&printsec=frontcover&vq=advocated+offspring+rhetoric+Shalom#v=onepage&q=advocated%20offspring%20rhetoric%20Shalom&f=false. Läst 10 augusti 2010. 
  6. ^ Feher, Shoshanah. Passing over Easter: Constructing the Boundaries of Messianic Judaism, Rowman Altamira, 1998, ISBN 978-0-7619-8953-0, p. 140. "This interest in developing a Jewish ethnic identity may not be surprising when we consider the 1960s, when Messianic Judaism arose."
  7. ^ Ariel, Yaakov (2006). ”Judaism and Christianity Unite! The Unique Culture of Messianic Judaism”. i Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael. Jewish and Christian Traditions. Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. "2". Westport, Conn: Greenwood Publishing Group. Sid. 194. ISBN 978-0-275-98714-5. OCLC 315689134. ”But the generation that came of age in the 1960s and 1970s thought differently about these matters. They wanted to make their own choices and did not feel constrained by old boundaries and taboos. Judaism and Christianity could go hand in hand.…In the first phase of the movement, during the early and mid-1970s, Jewish converts to Christianity established several congregations at their own initiative.” 
  8. ^ [a b] Ariel, Yaakov (2006). ”Judaism and Christianity Unite! The Unique Culture of Messianic Judaism”. i Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael. Jewish and Christian Traditions. Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. "2". Westport, Conn: Greenwood Publishing Group. Sid. 194–195. ISBN 978-0-275-98714-5. OCLC 315689134. ”The term Messianic Judaism came into public use in America in the early 1970s.…The term, however was not entirely new. It was used in the internal debates in the community of converts as early as the beginning of the century.…Missionaries, such as the Southern Baptist Robert Lindsey noted that for Israeli Jews, the term notzrim, "Christians" in Hebrew, meant, almost automatically, a alien hostile religion. Because such a term made it nearly impossible to convince Jews that Christianity was their religion, missionaries sought a more neutral term.…They chose Meshychim, Messianic, to overcome the suspicion and antagonism of the term notzrim.…It conveyed the sense of a new, innovative religion rather that [sic] an old, unfavorable one. The term was used in reference to those Jews who accepted Jesus as their personal savior, and did not apply to Jews accepting Roman Catholicism who in Israel have called themselves Hebrew Christians.” 
  9. ^ Lewis, James R. (2001). Odd Gods: New Religions & the Cult Controversy. Prometheus Books. Sid. 179. ISBN 978-1-57392-842-7. ”The origins of Messianic Judaism date to the 1960s when it began among American Jews who converted to Christianity.” 
  10. ^ Cohn-Sherbok, Dan (2010). ”Modern Jewish Movements”. Judaism Today. London; New York: Continuum International Publishing Group. Sid. 100. ISBN 978-0-8264-2231-6. ”In the 1970s a number of American Jewish converts to Christianity, known as Hebrew Christians, were committed to a church-based conception of Hebrew Christianity. Yet, at the same time, there emerged a growing segment of the Hebrew Christian community that sought a more Jewish lifestyle. Eventually, a division emerged between those who wished to identify as Jews and those who sought to pursue Hebrew Christian goals.... In time, the name of the movement was changed to Messianic Judaism.” 
  11. ^ Şenay, Bülent. ”Messianic Judaism/Jewish Christianity”. Overview of World Religions. Division of Religion and Philosophy at the University of Cumbria. http://www.philtar.ac.uk/encyclopedia/judaism/messiah.html. Läst 14 maj 2012. ”Hebrew Christians are quite happy to be integrated into local Christian churches, but Messianic Jews seek an 'indigenous' expression of theology, worship and lifestyle within the whole church. The latter group emerged in the 1960s when some Christian Jews adopted the name Messianic Jews ...” 
  12. ^ Cohn-Sherbok, Dan (2000). ”Messianic Jewish theology”. Messianic Judaism. London: Continuum International Publishing Group. Sid. 170. ISBN 978-0-8264-5458-4. OCLC 42719687. https://books.google.com/books?id=5aOOlWdLpNwC&pg=PA170&lpg=PA170&dq=messianic+judaism+trinity+belief&source=bl&ots=WVrxZ1F7nS&sig=lyRnZ7SYuXEahyDZtj89zBKcZqg&hl=en&ei=2P--TK_oF4H-8Aa2vO27Bg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CCQQ6AEwATgU#v=onepage&q=messianic%20judaism%20trinity%20belief&f=false. Läst 10 augusti 2010. 
  13. ^ [a b] ”Statement of Faith”. Statement of Faith. Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations. July 19, 2012. http://www.umjc.org/statement-of-faith/. Läst 10 september 2015. ”There is one God, who has revealed Himself as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Every divine action in the world is accomplished by the Father working through the Son and in the power of the Spirit. This God has revealed Himself in creation and in the history of Israel as transmitted in Scripture.…In the fullness of time, the Divine Son became a human being—Yeshua the Messiah, born of a Jewish virgin, a true and perfect Israelite, a fitting representative and one-man embodiment of the entire nation. He lived as a holy tzaddik, fulfilling without blemish the mitzvot of the Torah. He brings to perfection the human expression of the divine image.…Yeshua died as an atonement for the sins of Israel and of the entire world. He was raised bodily from the dead, as the firstfruits of the resurrection promised to Israel as its glorification. He ascended to heaven and was there enthroned at God’s right hand as Israel’s Messiah, with authority extending to the ends of creation.…Forgiveness of sins, spiritual renewal, union with Messiah, the empowering and sanctifying presence of the indwelling Ruach Ha Kodesh, and the confident hope of eternal life and a glorious resurrection are now available to all, Jews and Gentiles, who put their faith in Yeshua, the Risen Lord, and in obedience to His word are joined to Him and His Body through immersion and sustained in that union through Messiah’s remembrance meal. Yeshua is the Mediator between God and all creation, and no one can come to the Father except through Him.…Messiah Yeshua will return to Jerusalem in glory at the end of this age, to rule forever on David’s throne. He will effect the restoration of Israel in fullness, raise the dead, save all who belong to Him, judge the wicked not written in the Book of Life who are separated from His presence, and accomplish the final Tikkun Olam in which Israel and the nations will be united under Messiah’s rule forever.…The writings of Tanakh and Brit Hadasha are divinely inspired and fully trustworthy (true), a gift given by God to His people, provided to impart life and to form, nurture, and guide them in the ways of truth. They are of supreme and final authority in all matters of faith and practice.” 
  14. ^ [a b] ”Mission and Beliefs”. Mission and Beliefs. Memphis, Tennessee: B'rit Hadasha Messianic Jewish Synagogue. 2005. Arkiverad från originalet den augusti 10, 2015. https://web.archive.org/web/20150810231657/http://brithadasha.org/index.php/about-us/mission-and-beliefs. Läst 10 september 2015. ”We believe…The Bible, consisting of the T’nakh (Hebrew Scriptures) and the B’rit Hadasha (Apostolic Writings) to be inspired and the only infallible and authoritative Word of God [2 Timothy 3:16-17].…There is one God as declared in the Shema [Deuteronomy 6:4], who is “Echad,” a compound unity, revealed in three persons: God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit [Isaiah 48:16-17; Ephesians 4:4-6].…In the Deity of our Lord, Messiah Yeshua, in His virgin birth, in His sinless life, in His miracles, in His vicarious atoning death, in His bodily resurrection, in His ascension to the right hand of the Father, in His personal future return to this earth in power and glory to rule.” 
  15. ^ [a b] ”Statement of Faith”. Statement of Faith. Coalition of Torah Observant Messianic Congregations. 2015. http://www.ctomc.ca/sof.php. 
  16. ^ [a b] Ariel, Yaakov (2006). ”Judaism and Christianity Unite! The Unique Culture of Messianic Judaism”. i Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael. Jewish and Christian Traditions. Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. "2". Westport, Conn: Greenwood Publishing Group. Sid. 208. ISBN 978-0-275-98714-5. OCLC 315689134. ”For example, Messianic Jews, without exception, believe that the way to eternal life is through the acceptance of Jesus as one's personal savior and that no obedience to the Jewish law or "works" is necessary in order to obtain that goal.…Remarkably, it has been exactly this adherence to the basic Christian evangelical faith that has allowed Messianic Jews to adopt and promote Jewish rites and customs. They are Christians in good standing and can retain whatever cultural attributes and rites they choose.” 
  17. ^ [a b] ”Do I need to be Circumcised?”. Do I need to be Circumcised?. JerusalemCouncil.org. February 10, 2009. http://jerusalemcouncil.org/articles/faqs/do-i-need-to-be-circumcised/. Läst 18 augusti 2010. ”To convert to the Jewish sect of HaDerech, accepting Yeshua as your King is the first act after one's heart turns toward HaShem and His Torah – as one can not obey a commandment of God if they first do not love God, and we love God by following his Messiah. Without first accepting Yeshua as the King and thus obeying Him, then getting circumcised for the purpose of Jewish conversion only gains you access to the Jewish community. It means nothing when it comes to inheriting a place in the World to Come.... Getting circumcised apart from desiring to be obedient to HaShem, and apart from accepting Yeshua as your King, is nothing but a surgical procedure, or worse, could lead to you believe that Jewish identity grants you a portion in the World to Come – at which point, what good is Messiah Yeshua, the Word of HaShem to you? He would have died for nothing!... As a convert from the nations, part of your obligation in keeping the Covenant, if you are a male, is to get circumcised in fulfillment of the commandment regarding circumcision. Circumcision is not an absolute requirement of being a Covenant member (that is, being made righteous before HaShem, and thus obtaining eternal life), but it is a requirement of obedience to God's commandments, because circumcision is commanded for those who are of the seed of Abraham, whether born into the family, adopted, or converted.... If after reading all of this you understand what circumcision is, and that is an act of obedience, rather than an act of gaining favor before HaShem for the purpose of receiving eternal life, then if you are male believer in Yeshua the Messiah for the redemption from death, the consequence of your sin of rebellion against Him, then pursue circumcision, and thus conversion into Judaism, as an act of obedience to the Messiah.” 
  18. ^ [a b]
    Ortodox
    Simmons, Shraga. ”Why Jews Don't Believe in Jesus”. Why Jews Don't Believe in Jesus. Aish HaTorah. http://www.aish.com/jw/s/48892792.html. Läst 13 december 2016. ”Jews do not accept Jesus as the messiah because: 1. Jesus did not fulfill the messianic prophecies. 2. Jesus did not embody the personal qualifications of the Messiah. 3. Biblical verses "referring" to Jesus are mistranslations. 4. Jewish belief is based on national revelation.” 
    Konservativ
    Waxman, Jonathan (2006). ”Messianic Jews Are Not Jews”. Messianic Jews Are Not Jews. United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism. Arkiverad från originalet den december 20, 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20161220131151/http://www.uscj.org/JewishLivingandLearning/SocialAction/SocialJustice/CurrentIssues/ReligiousIssues/JewishValues/MessianicJewsAreNotJews.aspx. Läst 13 december 2016. ”Hebrew Christian, Jewish Christian, Jew for Jesus, Messianic Jew, Fulfilled Jew. The name may have changed over the course of time, but all of the names reflect the same phenomenon: one who asserts that s/he is straddling the theological fence between Judaism and Christianity, but in truth is firmly on the Christian side.…we must affirm as did the Israeli Supreme Court in the well-known Brother Daniel case that to adopt Christianity is to have crossed the line out of the Jewish community.” 
    Reformistisk
    ”Missionary Impossible”. Missionary Impossible. Hebrew Union College. August 2, 1999. http://huc.edu/news/1999/08/02/missionary-impossible. Läst 13 december 2016. ”Missionary Impossible, an imaginative video and curriculum guide for teachers, educators, and rabbis to teach Jewish youth how to recognize and respond to "Jews-for-Jesus", "Messianic Jews", and other Christian proselytizers, has been produced by six rabbinic students at Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion's Cincinnati School. The students created the video as a tool for teaching why Jewish college and high school youth and Jews in intermarried couples are primary targets of Christian missionaries.” 
    Rekonstruktionistisk/Renewal
    ”FAQ's About Jewish Renewal”. FAQ's About Jewish Renewal. 2007. Arkiverad från originalet den October 23, 2014. https://web.archive.org/web/20141023183108/https://www.aleph.org/faq.htm. Läst 20 december 2007. ”What is ALEPH's position on so called messianic Judaism? ALEPH has a policy of respect for other spiritual traditions, but objects to deceptive practices and will not collaborate with denominations which actively target Jews for recruitment. Our position on so-called "Messianic Judaism" is that it is Christianity and its proponents would be more honest to call it that.” 
  19. ^ ”Why Jews Don't Believe in Jesus”. Ask the Rabbi. Jerusalem: Ohr Somayach. 2000. http://ohr.edu/ask/ask00j.htm. Läst 28 juli 2010. ”The Christian idea of a trinity contradicts the most basic tenet of Judaism – that G-d is One. Jews have declared their belief in a single unified G-d twice daily ever since the giving of the Torah at Sinai – almost two thousand years before Christianity. The trinity suggests a three part deity: The Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost (Matthew 28:19). In Jewish law, worship of a three-part god is considered idolatry; one of the three cardinal sins for which a person should rather give up his life than transgress. The idea of the trinity is absolutely incompatible with Judaism.” 
  20. ^ Kaplan, Dana Evan (August 2005). ”Introduction”. i Dana Evan Kaplan (ed.). The Cambridge companion to American Judaism. Cambridge Companions to Religion. New York, New York: Cambridge University Press. Sid. 9. ISBN 978-0-521-82204-6. 
  21. ^ ”What is HaDerech (Messianic Judaism)?”. FAQ. The Jerusalem Council. February 10, 2009. http://jerusalemcouncil.org/articles/faqs/what-is-messianic-judaism/. Läst 9 augusti 2010. 
  22. ^ Lotker, Michael (May 2004). ”It's More About What is the Messiah than Who is the Messiah”. A Christian's guide to Judaism. New York, New York: Paulist Press. Sid. g. 35. ISBN 978-0-8091-4232-3. ”It should now be clear to you why Jews have such a problem with 'Jews for Jesus' or other presentations of Messianic Judaism. I have no difficulty with Christianity. I even accept those Christians who would want me to convert to Christianity so long as they don't use coercion or duplicity and are willing to listen in good faith to my reasons for being Jewish. I do have a major problem with those Christians who would try to mislead me and other Jews into believing that one can be both Jewish and Christian.” 
  23. ^ Kaplan, Aryeh (1985). ”Why Aren't We Christians?”. The Real Messiah? A Jewish Response to Missionaries. Orthodox Union and NCSY in cooperation with Jews for Judaism (publicerad 2004). Sid. 3–6. ISBN 1-879016-11-7. http://jewsforjudaism.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/TheRealMessiah.pdf. Läst 10 september 2015. 
  24. ^
  25. ^ Kessler, Edward (2005). ”Messianic Jews”. i Kessler, Edward; Wenborn, Neil (GoogleBooks). A Dictionary Of Jewish-Christian Relations. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ss. 292–293. ISBN 978-0-521-82692-1. OCLC 60340826. https://books.google.com/books?id=QkI_JNv3rIwC&dq=Christian+view+of+Messianic+Judaism&pg=PA292&ots=9ZztiEufQr&sig=EU4ZB9r4mLBUJ80WydjeNuq05X0&prev=https://www.google.com/search%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3DChristian%2Bview%2Bof%2BMessianic%2BJudaism%26btnG%3DSearch&sa=X&oi=print&ct=result&cd=3&cad=legacy#PPA292,M1. Läst 2 november 2011. ”Messianic Judaism is proactive in seeking Jewish converts and is condemned by the vast majority of the Jewish community. Although a Jewish convert to Christianity may still be categorised a Jew according to a strict interpretation of the halakhah (Jewish law), most Jews are adamantly opposed to the idea that one can convert to Christianity and still remain a Jew or be considered part of Jewish life. From a mainstream Christian perspective Messianic Judaisms can also provoke hostility for misrepresenting Christianity.”. 
  26. ^
  27. ^ Spector, Stephen (5 November 2008). Evangelicals and Israel. Oxford University Press. Sid. 116. ISBN 978-0-19-970979-3. 
  28. ^ Berman, Daphna (June 10, 2006). ”Aliyah with a cat, a dog and Jesus”. Aliyah with a cat, a dog and Jesus. Haaretz. Arkiverad från originalet den January 17, 2008. https://web.archive.org/web/20080117214825/http://www.wwrn.org/article.php?idd=21820&sec=59&con=35. Läst 9 augusti 2010. ”In rejecting their petition, Supreme Court Justice Menachem Elon cited their belief in Jesus. ‘In the last two thousand years of history ... the Jewish people have decided that messianic Jews do not belong to the Jewish nation ... and have no right to force themselves on it,’ he wrote, concluding that ‘those who believe in Jesus, are, in fact Christians.’” 
  29. ^ Schoeman, Roy H. (2003). Salvation is from the Jews: the role of Judaism in salvation history from Abraham to the Second Coming. San Francisco, California: Ignatius Press. Sid. 351. ISBN 978-0-89870-975-9. ”By the mid 1970s, Time magazine placed the number of Messianic Jews in the U.S. at over 50,000; by 1993 this number had grown to 160,000 in the U.S. and about 350,000 worldwide (1989 estimate).... There are currently over 400 Messianic synagogues worldwide, with at least 150 in the U.S.” 
  30. ^ Yeoman, Barry (November 15, 2007). ”Evangelical movement on the rise”. Evangelical movement on the rise. Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Arkiverad från originalet den May 27, 2012. https://web.archive.org/web/20120527180214/http://www.jta.org/news/article/2007/11/15/104639/evangelicalpartI. Läst 30 mars 2011. 
  31. ^ Posner, Sarah (November 29, 2012). ”Kosher Jesus: Messianic Jews in the Holy Land”. The Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2012/11/kosher-jesus-messianic-jews-in-the-holy-land/265670/. Läst 10 september 2015.