Fornegyptiska medicinska papyrer

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Fornegyptiska kirurgiska instrument, Kom Ombo-templet.
Kahun-papyrusen VI 1.
Edwin Smith-papyrusen.
Ebers-papyrusen.

De Fornegyptiska medicinska papyri är papyrusfynd från Forntida Egypten och antikens Egypten och innehåller de äldsta bevarade skrifter om medicin. Manuskripten upptäcktes på olika fyndplatser i Egypten och de äldsta dateras till cirka 1900-talet f.Kr. Idag förvaras de på olika institutioner världen över.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]

Bakgrund[redigera | redigera wikitext]

Vanligen tillskrivs uppkomsten av läkekonsten till antikens Grekland men grekerna fick sina kunskaper från egyptiska läkare (kallades wab sekhmet).[8] De första bevarade dokumenterade medicinska forskningar utfördes redan i forntidens Egypten där de äldsta manuskripten dateras till cirka 1900-talet f.Kr. Det fanns såväl anatomiska kunskaper, hygieniska kunskaper, diagnostiska metoder och behandlingar av olika medicinska och kirurgiska tillstånd. De bevarade manuskripten utgör ofta troligen avskrifter av ännu äldre manuskript:[2][3][4][5][6][7]

Den fornegyptiska medicinvetenskapen var effektiv och tämligen exakt, vissa ämnen i fornegyptiska mediciner används än idag.[8]

Manuskripten[redigera | redigera wikitext]

De bevarade manuskripten täcker olika områden, bland de mest betydande papyri finns:[1][2][3][4][5][7][9]

  • London-papyrusen
    • dateras till cirka 1350 f.Kr. kring Egyptens artonde dynasti
    • innehåller texter om sjukdomar och behandlingar, smärtor, tandbesvär och sårvård, blandad med trollformler
    • det är okänt när papyrusen upptäcktes, 1860 donerades papyrusrullen av Royal Institute of London till British Museum
    • förvaras idag på British Museum, London

Historia[redigera | redigera wikitext]

De bevarade manuskripten är uppkallade dels efter den ursprunglige ägaren (till exempel Edwin Smith-papyrusen), fyndplatsen (till exempel Kahun-papyrusen), platsen där de förvaras idag (till exempel Berlin-papyrusen) eller efter den som publicerade den första studien om manuskriptet (till exempel Ebers-papyrusen).[3]

En omfattande studie av de bevarade medicinska papyri gjordes i Berlin under 1950-talet av tyske egyptologen Hermann Grapow som publicerade sina resultat i flera böcker, däribland "Grundriss der Medizin der alten Ägypter".

Referenser[redigera | redigera wikitext]

Litteratur[redigera | redigera wikitext]

Table of Ancient Egyptian medical papyri[redigera | redigera wikitext]

Papyrus Name Other names Dating Language Medical specialties Contents Scribe/Author Date & place of discovery place of preserving size image
Edwin Smith Papyrus Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus dates to Dynasties 16-17 of the Second Intermediate Period in Ancient Egypt, ca. 1500 BCE but believed to be a copy from Old Kingdom, 3000-2500 BCE Hieratic The oldest known surgical treatise on trauma The vast majority of the papyrus is concerned with trauma and surgery, with short sections on gynaecology and cosmetics on the verso. On the recto side, there are 48 cases of injury. The verso side consists of eight magic spells and five prescriptions. The oldest known surgical treatise on trauma Attributed by some to Imhotep Luxor, Egypt before 1862 New York Academy of Medicine a scroll 4.68 m in length. The recto (front side) has 377 lines in 17 columns, while the verso (backside) has 92 lines in five columns File:Edwin Smith Papyrus v2.jpg
Ebers Papyrus Papyrus Ebers c. 1550 BC but believed to be a copy from earlier texts of 3400 BC Hieratic Medicine, Obestitrics &gynecology & Surgery The scroll contains some 700 magical formulas and remedies, chapters on contraception, diagnosis of pregnancy and other gynecological matters, intestinal disease and parasites, eye and skin problems, dentistry and the surgical treatment of abscesses and tumors, bone-setting and burns N/A Assassif district of the Theban necropolis before 1862 Library of University of Leipzig, Germany a 110-page scroll, which is about 20 meters long File:PEbers c41-bc.jpg
Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus Kahun Papyrus, Kahun Medical Papyrus, or UC 32057 ca. 1800 BCE Hieratic Medicine, Obestitrics & gynecology, pediatrics and veterinary medicine The text is divided into thirty-four sections that deals with women's health—gynaecological diseases, fertility, pregnancy, contraception, etc. The later Berlin Papyrus and the Ramesseum Papyrus IV cover much of the same ground, often giving identical prescriptions N/A El-Lahun by Flinders Petrie in 1889 University College London 2 gynecologic papyri &1 veterinary payrus File:PKahun LV2.jpg
Ramesseum medical papyri Ramesseum medical papyri parts III, IV, and V 18th century BC Hieroglyphic & hieratic Medicine, gynecology, ophthalmology, rheumatology & pediatrics A collection of ancient Egyptian medical documents in parts III, IV, and V, and written in vertical columns that mainly dealt with ailments, diseases, the structure of the body, and supposed remedies used to heal these afflictions. namely ophthalmologic ailments, gynaecology, muscles, tendons, and diseases of children N/A Ramesseum temple Oxford Ashmoulian Museum 3 papyri (parts III, IV, V) N/A
Hearst papyrus Hearst Medical Papyrus 18th Dynasty of Egypt, around time of Tuthmosis III ca. 0000 but believed to have been composed earlier, during the Middle Kingdom, around 2000 BC Hieratic Urology, Medicine and bites 260 paragraphs on 18 columns in 18 pages of medical prescriptions for problems of urinary system, blood, hair, and bites N/A discovered by an Egyptian peasant of village of Der-el-Ballas before 1901 Bancroft Library, University of California 18 pages File:Papyrus Hearst Plate 2.jpg
London Medical Papyrus BM EA 10059 19th dynasty 1300 BC or ca. 1629–1628 BC Hieratic skin complaints, eye complaints, bleeding, miscarriage and burns 61 recipes, of which 25 are classified as medical the remainder are of magic N/A N/A Royal institute of London File:London Medical Papyrus 15.jpg
Brugsch Papyrus Pap. Berl. 3038, the Greater Berlin Papyrus 19th dynasty, and dated ca. 1350 - 1200 BC Hieratic ? Medical discussing general medical cases and bears a great similarity to the Ebers papyrus. Some historians believe that this papyrus was used by Galen in his writings 24 pages (21 to the front and 3 on the back) N/A Discovered by an Egyptian in Saqqara before 1827 Berlin Museum N/A
Carlsberg papyrus N/A between the 19th and 20th dynasties, New Kingdom ; its style relates it to the 12th dynasty. Some fragments date back to ca. 2000 B.C., others — the Tebtunis manuscripts — date back to ca. 1st century A.D Hieratic, Demotic. Hieroglyphs and in Greek Obestitrics & gynecology, Medicine, Pediatrics & ophthalmology The structure of the papyrus bears great resemblance to that of the Kahun and Berlin papyri. N/A N/A N/A Egyptological Institute of the University of Copenhague N/A
Chester Beatty Medical Papyrus Chester Beatty Papyri, Papyrus VI of the Chester Beatty Papyri 46 (Papyrus no. 10686, British Museum), Chester Beatty V BM 10685, VI BM 10686, VII BM 10687, VIII BM 10688, XV BM 10695 dated around 1200 BC] Heritic? Headche, and Anorectal disorders Magic spells and medical reciepes for headache & anorectal disease N/A started off as a private collection by the scribe Qen-her-khepeshef in the 19th Dynasty and passed on down through his family until there were placed in a tomb Deir el-Medina (the workers village) in 1928 British Museum N/A
Brooklyn Papyrus 47.218.48 och 47.218.85, also known as the Brooklyn Medical Papyrus a collection of papyri which belong to the end of the 30th dynasty, dated to around 450 BC, , or the beginning of the Ptolemaic Period. However, it is written with the Middle Kingdom style which could suggest its origin might be from the Thirteenth dynasty of Egypt Hiertic?? deals only with snakes and scorpion bites, and the formulae to drive out the poison of such animals It speaks about remedies to drive out poison from snakes, scorpions and tarantulas. The style of these remedies relates to that of the Ebers papyrus a scroll of papyrus divided into two parts with some parts missing, its total length is estimated to 175 × 27 cm N/A might originate from a temple at ancient Heliopolis, discovered before 1885 Brooklyn Museum in New York N/A
Berlin Papyrus Berlin Papyrus 6619 Middle Kingdom ??? Medicine & Mathematics the first known documentation concerning pregnancy test procedures N/A N/A Saqqara in the early 19th century CE Berlin Museum N/A
Erman Papyrus[10] given with the Westcar papyrus to Berlin museum Middle dated from the beginning of the New Kingdom (16th century BC) ??? Medicine, Magic & Anatomy holds some medical formulae and a list of anatomic names (body and viscera) and about 20 magical formulae N/A N/A before 1886 AD Berlin Museum N/A
Leiden Papyrus[10] Rijksmuseum, Leiden 1343-1345 18th-19th dynastie ??? Medicine, Magic It mostly deals with magical texts N/A N/A N/A Rijks museum, Leiden N/A

Noter[redigera | redigera wikitext]

  1. ^ [a b] Indiana University, Indiana (läst 25 april 2011)
  2. ^ [a b c] Indigo.ie (läst 25 april 2011)
  3. ^ [a b c d] World Research Foundation (läst 25 april 2011)
  4. ^ [a b c] Coptic Medical (läst 25 april 2011)
  5. ^ [a b c] Heritage-key.com (läst 25 april 2011)
  6. ^ [a b] Reshafim.org (läst 25 april 2011)
  7. ^ [a b c] Medizinische Papyri.de (läst 25 april 2011)
  8. ^ [a b c] Illustrerad Vetenskap, nr 13, 2008 (läst 25 april 2011)
  9. ^ [a b] University of Kansas, Kansas, Chauncey D. Leake (läst 25 april 2011)
  10. ^ [a b] http://www.aams.org.au/contents.php?subdir=library/history/&filename=pharonic_egypt

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